Scientific Research is an aggregate of activities carried out by using scientific methods in sequential order to describe an event of a phenomenon or draw conclusions on the basis of available information.
A definition of scientific research that fits different views is; a systematic, careful inquiry or investigation done to discover new information or relationship and to expand verify existing knowledge for specific purposes that may be academic or applied or both.
Scientific Method; In this method, truth is not ascertained by beliefs but by something upon which thinking has no effects. In this method, the ultimate conclusion of every man shall be the same.
This method deals with real things whose characters are entirely independent of our opinions about them. Self-correction and objectivity are two main characteristics of this method that distinguishes it from other methods.-Personal beliefs, perceptions, biases, values attitude and emotions have no place in this method.
Characteristics of scientific research
1. Verifiability:- The conclusion drawn through a scientific method is subjected to verification at any time. In case direct observation could not be done, other methods such as interviews can be utilized for verification.
For instance, a man’s order of preference for the various jobs, although incapable of being observed can still be verified through interviews.
2. Generality:– Laws derived through scientific methods are universal in their application. They are not limited to individuals groups or individual groups of objects are considered as specimens and the relationships discovered through these individual groups should be applicable to the whole groups called universe.
3. Predictably:– The result through the scientific method can be predicted with sufficient accuracy. For example, one can say with certainty that if the water is heated to 100°C, it will vaporize and if it cooled to 0°C, it will turn to ice. Predictably is fixed on two factors i.e. fixing of relationships between the causes and the effects and the stability of causative factors. Predictably depends
(a) the nature of the phenomenon and
(b) the knowledge of various causative factors
4. Objectivity:- The results obtained through scientific methods should be free from the investigator’s own views, wishes of prevalent notions. i.e. that all persons should arrive at the same conclusion about the phenomenon.
For example, when we say coal is black, it is an objective statement because coal appears black to all people. But when we say coal is a useful mineral the statement maybe not be objective for every man. Objectivity is essential for verification. It permits the repetition of observation by many observers. Apparently, objectivity seems very easy to achieve but is more difficult to achieve in social sciences.
5. System:– In every scientific study, there is an accepted mode of investigation. The result arrived through the haphazard method even true cannot be called scientific because its accuracy is purely accidental.
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