History of computer

History of Computer | Evolution of Computer

History of Computer

History of computer could be traced back to the effort of man to count large numbers. Earliest calculating devices are not like the modern calculating devices in compact form, high processing speed, and reduced cost, easily portable and so on. 

There were a lot of devices invented for the development of modern digital computer. This gradual study from early to present device regarding the development of computer is termed as history of computer. Following are different phases of development of modern digital computer



The first calculating device called ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people. The word ABACUS means calculating board. It consisted of sticks in horizontal positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles. They were invented in 3000BC.

Napier's Bones

Napier’s bones

English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A D. The device was known as Napier’s bones. This device was used for multiplying, dividing, and taking square roots and cube roots where multiplication tables written on strips of wood and bones.

Slide Rule

slide rule

Mathematician William Oughtred developed the slide rule in 1622. This machine could perform operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This machine was also used for scientific calculations like logarithmic functions and trigonometric functions. The slide rule is also known as a mechanical analog computer.

Pascal Calculator

Pascal Calulator

Pascal’s calculator was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. He developed a machine at the age of 19 that could add and subtract.

Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine

The German philosopher and mathematician Wihlem Von Leibniz built in1673 a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide and extracts roots. This is the improved version of Pascal’s Calculator.

Difference Engine

Charles Babbage, Father of Computer invented, difference engine in 1821. The engines are performing complex mathematical calculation with 31 digits of precision by using rods, gears, levers and linkage. The engine was used to solve polynomial equations.

Babbage’s Analytical Engine

It was in the year 1837 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine.

Harvard Mark I

This machine was invented by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper in 1944. The computer controlled by punched, paper tape could carry out addition, subtraction, multiplication and reference previous result.


It was invented in 1949 by Maurice Wilkes. Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, the first stored-program computer.


This machine was invented by Eckert and Mauchly in 1949. Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was one of the earliest stored program computers


It was invented in 1951 by J. Presper, Eckert and Mauchly. Universal Automatic Computer was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.


Laptop was invented by William Moggridge in 1979.

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Loksewa Aayog Kharidar Syllabus: Qualification, Examinations, and Result

Loksewa Aayog Kharidar Syllabus: Qualification, Examinations, and Result

In this post, you will get complete information about the Kharidar Syllabus, Qualifications to apply for it, and types of examinations, and finally the result. Let’s begin with Kharidar Qualification;

Kharidar Qualification

To apply for the post of Kharidar, you must have following criteria:

Academic Qualification: SLC passed out OR SEE passed out (From government recognized institution)

Note: For Grade System, 2.0 GPA or Above 2.0 GPA is required

Age: Minimum age 18 years & Maximum age limit 35 years

Note: For women and physically disabled; Maximum age limit = 40 years

Kharidar Qualification
Kharidar Qualification

Image Source: Loksewa Official Website

Kharidar Syllabus

Before discussing the syllabus of kharidar, let me explain the three types of major examinations. There are three types of examinations

Kharidar first paper

Kharidar 1st paper is just like entrance examination. This paper is also divided into two portion;

  • IQ
  • GK

There are 50 questions asked in 1st paper and the exam format is MCQ. You have to select a correct alternative/answer from the given 4 options. Each question carries 2 marks and the full mark of examination is 100 while the pass mark is 40. And there is also negative marking for a wrong answer. If you tick the wrong option then 20% of the marks of a question are decreased from obtained marks.

No of questions from GK = 35

No of questions from IQ = 15

Each question carries 2 marks

Kharidar first paper GK
Kharidar 1st paper IQ
Kharidar 1st paper IQ

Second Paper: Science & Mathematics

You must know that only the candidates who passed 1st paper are eligible for the second paper and third paper.

Second paper science

2. Mathematics

Second paper mathematics

Syllabus Source: Loksewa Official Website

Third Paper: Social Studies & Office Practices

This exam is in written format and it consists three sections:

Section A: Social studies – 40 marks

Section B: Health, Population and Environment – 30 marks

Group C: Office Practices and Miscellaneous – 30 marks

kharidar third paper
kharidar third paper

Kharidar Result

Generally, it took 1 month to publish the result of 1st paper from the date of examination. And after that, it took nearly 6 months to complete all three examinations.

Kharidar Online Class/ Course

One of the great problem-solving institutes of Nepal is Ignited Nepal and it provides the whole courses with great concepts and easy way.

Loksewa Aayog Kharidar Syllabus: Qualification, Examinations, and Result